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kidney stones causes

What are Kidney Stones | Types | Causes | Risk Factors | Symptoms | Treatment | Prevention | Conclusion

Kidney Stones is the most common problem at this time. Kidney stones can happen in one or both kidneys and most often affect people aged between 30 to 60 years.

Have you ever feel kidney stones pain? Then there is good news for you because here we will give full information about Kidney Stones Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment.

They’re quite common, with around three in 20 men and up to two in 20 women developing them at some stage of their lives.

Let’s have a look forward and know what are Kidney Stones.

What are Kidney Stones?

kidney stones
kidney stones

The scientific name of kidney stones is nephrolithiasis, and if they cause severe pain it’s known as renal colic. Kidney Stones are hard deposits made from minerals and salt that from inside your kidney.

Kidney stones vary in shape and size. They may be as small as a seed of sand or as big as a pea. Rarely, only few kidney stones are as big as golf balls.

But, they can grow anywhere along your urinary tract, which consists of these parts:

  • Kidneys
  • Ureters
  • Bladder
  • Urethra

Kidney stones are one of the painful medical situations. The causes of kidney stones depend on the type of stone.

Types of Kidney Stones

types of kidney stones
types of kidney stones

The four main types of kidney stones are:

  1. Calcium: Calcium stones are most common, basically they made up off calcium oxalate.
  2. Uric Acid: This type of kidney stones are more common in male rather than females. This type of stones forms when urine is too acidic.
  3. Cystine: Cystine stones are rare. They happen in both male and female who have the genetic disorder cystinuria.
  4. Struvite: Struvite stones are generally common in women with urinary tract infection(UTI).

Causes of Kidney Stones

causes of kidney stones
causes of kidney stones

The main cause of kidney stones is a shortage of water in the body. The waste material in the blood can infrequently build crystals that settle inside the kidneys. Over time, the crystals may build up to form a hard stone-like lump.

This is more likely to happen if you don’t drink fluids in sufficient amount, if you’re taking some kind of medical treatment, or if you have a medical condition like Crohn’s disease, urinary tract infections, renal tubular acidosis, medullary sponge kidney,  hyperparathyroidism, and Dent’s disease increase the risk of having kidney stones.

An extremely acidic environment in the urine can affect the development of kidney stones. After a kidney stone has build up, your body will try to pass it out when you go to the toilet (in the urine). This means it will often travel through the urinary system (the kidneys, kidney tubes, and bladder).

Risk Factors

Risk Factors of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are most common in males rather than females. Maximum people who feel kidney stones do so within the ages of 30 and 60 years.
There are many possibilities for forming kidney stones like that long-term use of vitamin D and calcium supplements cause high calcium levels, which can contribute to kidney stones.

Some other factors that increase the risk of forming kidney stones include:

  • Family or Personal History:  A family record of kidney stones also enhances one’s possibilities of forming them. Similarly, the previous history of having kidney stone can increase the risk of again form a kidney stone in future, if preventative action not taken.
  • Dehydration: People who live in warm weather and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.
  • Certain Diet: Eating diets that are rich in protein and sodium can increases the risk of some type of kidney stone.  
  • Obesity: Large waist size and overweight also can increase the risk of kidney stones.



Symptoms of kidney stones are undetected until the stone begins to move down the ureters. You may have pain one side of your back or abdomen.

When symptoms of kidney stones become clear, they commonly include:

  • Vomiting and Nausea
  • Blood in Urine (red, pink or brown urine)
  • Frequent need to urine
  • Pain while urinating
  • Sharp pain in your back or lower abdomen
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present

Small stones may pass without causing symptoms.



Treatment of kidney stones depends on the size and shape of the stone and which type of this made of, whether it is causing pain or blocking the urine tract. After the answering these questions your doctor can recognize the which is the right treatment for you. But most of the kidney stones are the size of less than 4mm in diameter, which is too small, and this treated at home.

But the stone is big then patients need some treatment procedures, which are given below:


Medication can also be injected to treat the sign and symptoms of nausea (feeling sick) and vomiting. This is called an anti-emetic (anti-sickness) medication. You may also be given a prescription for painkillers, anti-emetics, or both, to take at home.

Some other medications are:

  • allopurinol (Zyloprim) for uric acid stones
  • sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate to make the urine less acidic
  • ibuprofen (Advil) for pain
  • acetaminophen (Tylenol) for pain
  • naproxen sodium (Aleve) for pain


When a stone is stuck in the ureter or bladder, and the doctor may use an instrument called a ureteroscope to remove it.

In this procedure, a small wire with a camera connected is inserted into the urethra and passed into the bladder. The doctor then uses a short cage to snag the stone and extract it. The stone is then given to the lab for examination.


One treatment option is a shock wave therapy named lithotripsy. In this treatment, doctors use shock waves to break up the kidney stones into small pieces. After the lithotripsy, the pieces of the stones will pass through from the urinary tract and out of your body with your urine.

This treatment generally complete in 45 minutes to 60 minutes.



avoid oxalate rich food
Avoid oxalate-rich food

The best way to prevent kidney stones is to stay hydrated and drink plenty of water each day.

Lifestyle changes can decrease the risk of kidney stones include:

  • Limiting salt and sugar intake: A diet rich in sodium and sugar can cause kidney stones by enhancing the amount of calcium in your urine. So, don’t take high sodium and sugar diet.
  • Limiting protein: Avoid animal protein in your diet such as chicken, eggs may also help to prevent kidney stones.
  • Avoid Oxalate-rich foods: If you had a calcium stone then you may also avoid oxalate-rich food such as chocolate, beans, dark green vegetables like spinach, tea, coffee, berries, sweet potato, nuts, and oranges.

Some drug used to prevent kidney stones include:

  • Potassium citrate: It is used to lowers the acidity of urine
  • Allopurinol: Used to lowers uric acid in urine
  • Thiazide diuretics: It lowers the calcium levels in urine
  • Cystine-binding thiol drugs used for cystine stones
  • Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) used for struvite kidney stones

NOTE: Keep in mind, Never start or stop any kind of treatment or diet without talking to your doctor first!


Therefore, this all about Kidney stones causes, symptoms and treatment. Hope this article will surely help you to solve any type of query which is related to kidney stones.

In simple words, take care of yourself, our life is too precious. So, try to understand your body needs and also fulfill these needs.

If you like this article, then don’t forget to share it also with your peers and give your valuable feedback in the comment section!